3. Local Climate
Extreme heat and cold have negative effects on the efficiency of electric vehicles. EVs in more extreme climate areas in the U.S. can use up to 15% more energy on average, according to Carnegie Mellon University’s Department of Engineering and Technology. In the very coldest areas, it can be as much as 40% more energy use. Cold weather slows down the chemical reactions that take place inside the lithium-ion batteries that power all-electric cars, and it requires more power for auxiliary electrical systems such as heating. That extra energy use could translate to higher emissions if that power is drawn from fossil-fuel-burning power plants.
But EV battery technology is consistently advancing. Battery packs that take less time to charge and are more energy-dense are in development. EVs are also already built with cooling systems to mitigate the effects of extreme heat on their batteries.