One of the most important developments for cities looking to transform their energy profile is the interlinking of the energy sector with buildings and transportation. A zero-carbon city will need to address the role of fossil fuels in space heating and in transportation. Improvements in energy efficiency and the shift to renewable resources are essential steps. Even more importantly, it is the much closer connection between buildings and transportation and the energy network that will lay the foundation for a new Urban Energy Cloud.
Across Europe, many cities are already exploring the future interconnection of energy, buildings, and transport, including more than 70 cities involved in 12 EU Horizon 2020 Smart City and Communities projects. Sharing Cities, for example, is a €25 million EU Horizon 2020 project led by London, Milan, and Lisbon. The 3-year project, launched in January 2016, is developing, deploying, and integrating replicable solutions across the energy, transport, data, and information and communications technologies sectors.